Trump v. Clinton: How They Line Up On Health

The Philadelphia Inquirer offers an analysis on the Candidate’s Position on health care. The following is a summary the article:

Health insurance

  • Clinton: Wants to improve the Affordable Care Act. She wants to reduce the cost of health insurance purchased on exchanges and provide a tax credit of up to $5,000 a family to offset out-of-pocket costs and premiums above 5% of household income. She would expand tax credits and cap the cost of premiums at 8.5% of family income. She calls for fixing the “family glitch” so families can access coverage in the exchanges when their employer’s family plan is not affordable. She would allow undocumented immigrants to buy insurance through the exchanges. In what is seen as a nod to Bernie Sanders’ supporters, she is affirming support for a public option that would allow people as young as 55 to buy health insurance through Medicare.
  • Trump: Opposes requiring people to buy health insurance. He wants to repeal the Affordable Care Act. He proposes to make coverage more affordable by allowing sales of health insurance across state lines and permitting people to deduct health insurance premium payments from their taxes. He would emphasize tax-deductible health savings accounts (HSA) where funds could accumulate if they are not used. He wants to require price transparency by health-care providers so that people can shop around for the best prices. He also wants would-be immigrants to certify that they can pay for their own health care.

Prescription drugs

  • Clinton: Wants to eliminate tax breaks that pharmaceutical companies get for direct-to-consumer advertising, and require those that benefit from federal research spending to reinvest profits into research. She would ban legal settlements in which pharma companies pay competitors so they will hold off on introducing generics and would allow consumers to import cheaper drugs from countries such as Canada. She supports allowing Medicare to negotiate lower drug prices and would cap out-of-pocket costs for people with chronic health problems.
  • Trump: Calls for a free market for prescription drugs, including allowing consumers to import them from countries that regulate prices. This practice is now illegal, though the law is not firmly enforced.

Medicaid

  • Clinton: Supports president Obama’s proposal to let states that sign up for Medicaid expansion to get a 100% match for the first three years. She would expand access to Medicaid and children’s health insurance.
  • Trump: Wants states to get federal Medicaid funding through block grants, which could mean fewer dollars for many states, but would give local officials more authority over expenditures.

Medicare

  • Clinton: Has vowed to fight proposals to privatize or phase out Medicare, and would give Medicare the power to negotiate lower drug costs.
  • Trump: Is against abolishing Medicare.

Social Security

  • Clinton: Opposes privatizing Social Security, reducing annual cost-of-living adjustments, and raising the retirement age. Clinton would expand Social Security for some, such as widows and caregivers, and help to fund the benefit through a wealth tax.
  • Trump: Has voiced support for Social Security and called it “honoring a deal.” He has said that Republicans cannot win elections if they seek to change it substantially.

Veterans Administration

  • Clinton: Says she would ensure more timely benefits, block privatization efforts, and strengthen services for military families and employment programs for veterans.
  • Trump: Has vowed to reform the agency and make it more efficient in delivering service and employment assistance.

Abortion

  • Clinton: Wants to protect access to safe and legal abortion.
  • Trump: Back in 1999, he told Meet the Press that, despite his personal dislike of abortion, “I’m very pro-choice.” More recently, he announced, “I am pro-life.” This year, Trump he said on MSNBC that if abortion were banned, women who violated the law would have to be punished. Soon after, his campaign released a statement saying that providers, not patients, should be held liable. His running mate, Indiana Gov. Mike Pence, has backed some of the nation’s toughest abortion restrictions.

HIV/AIDS

  • Clinton: Her proposals include funding research to seek a cure; finding more affordable treatment, including capping prescription costs; urging all states to extend Medicaid coverage for people living with HIV; and increasing use of HIV prevention medication.
  • Trump: Has not issued a policy on HIV and AIDS, though some in the advocacy media say his goals of lowering prescription drug costs and increasing transparency about health care pricing could be beneficial.

Medical research funding

  • Clinton: Advocates increasing funding for Alzheimer’s research to $2 billion a year, paying for care-planning services through Medicare, and funding a federal program to help locate Alzheimer’s patients who wander.
  • Trump: Has called funding for Alzheimer’s research “a total top priority,” but he has not offered many specifics about policies he would pursue. He has alarmed the research community with scientifically unfounded statements about Ebola, autism, and climate change.

Autism

  • Clinton: Has called for a nationwide early-screening campaign. She wants to push all states to require health insurance coverage for autism services, help get adults on the autism spectrum connected to employment opportunities, and fund more research.
  • Trump: In tweets and during a presidential debate, Trump has linked autism to some vaccinations, a tie that has been widely debunked by international medical authorities and advocates, such as Autism Speaks, a group that Trump has supported.

Addiction and drugs

  • Clinton: Would increase funds for addiction treatment and prevention, and emphasize rehabilitation over prison for low-level and non-violent drug offenses. She wants more preventive services for adolescents, opioid antidotes for all first responders, and more training for drug prescribers.
  • Trump: In New Hampshire, Trump vowed to fight addiction on two fronts saying, “First, we have to support locally based and locally run clinics, and we have got to close the border. That’s where the drugs are coming from.”

Medical marijuana

  • Clinton: Supports the use of medical marijuana.
  • Trump:.Supports the use of medical marijuana.

Family and medical leave

  • Clinton: Advocates a paid family and medical leave of up to 12 weeks with at least a two-thirds wage replacement rate. She proposes paying for the plan with taxes on the wealthy.
  • Trump: He told Stuart Varney on Fox News last year, “Well, it’s something that’s being discussed. I think we have to keep our country very competitive, so you have to be careful of it.”

Federal funding of Planned Parenthood

Clinton: Supports federal funding of Planned Parenthood.
Trump: At a news conference on Super Tuesday, Trump said he would not give federal funds to Planned Parenthood because the organization performs abortions. But he praised the health care it provides, saying, “millions and millions of women – cervical cancer, breast cancer – are helped by Planned Parenthood.”

Prescription Drug Costs Skewed by Hidden Fees

Most independent community pharmacists consistently encounter misleading and confusing fees imposed by prescription drug middlemen. These fees distort medication costs and reimbursement rates, according to a recent survey by the National Community Pharmacists Association (NCPA). The survey documents two relatively recent trends: direct and indirect remuneration (DIR) fees imposed on community pharmacies and increased copay claw-back fees that affect pharmacy patients. NCPA CEO B. Douglas Hoey, RPh, MBA said, “Pharmacy benefit management (PBM) corporations are inserting costs into the system on virtually everyone in order to fuel their profits and reward shareholders. Government officials and health plan sponsors must insist on greater transparency and oversight of these practices to ensure that plan costs and premiums go to their intended purpose: taking care of patients. NCPA will continue to work with Medicare officials, Congress and others toward that end.”

Community pharmacies are assessed DIR fees that can turn a modest profit into a financial loss. Sometimes it takes weeks or months after medication is dispensed until the patient and pharmacy is reimbursed. The survey reveals the following:

  • 67% of pharmacists say they get no information on how much and when DIR fees will be collected or assessed.
  • 53% say DIR fees are assessed quarterly. Many complain that this lag time makes it difficult to operate a small business and impossible to determine if net reimbursement will cover their costs at the time of dispensing.
  • DIR fees started in the Medicare Part D program, but 57% of pharmacists say they now appear in some commercial plans as well.

Eighty-seven percent of pharmacists said that DIR fees significantly affect their pharmacy’s ability to provide patient care and remain in business. Many pharmacists say that DIR fees can be thousands of dollars each month. According to the survey, members report that the Aetna and CVS Caremark drug plans are the most egregious in this area. The survey also disputes claims that DIR fees are actually pay-for-performance incentives. Pharmacists said that PBM corporations were not transparent about their DIR fee criteria and they assessed DIR fees on pharmacies with the highest quality ratings.

Recently, 16 U.S. senators and 30 representatives wrote to the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) urging implementation of the agency’s proposed “negotiated drug price” guidance. Proponents say that requiring  Part D plans to report these fees consistently would improve transparency, increase accuracy of the Medicare Plan Finder tool that patients use to evaluate drug plans, and give pharmacists more clarity about their true reimbursement rate.

The survey also addresses copay claw backs on patients. PBMs instruct pharmacies to collect elevated copays and recoup the excess amount – and sometimes more – from the pharmacy. “Patients purchase insurance with the presumption that they will save money using the plan’s designated health care providers. Copay claw backs turn that logic on its head. A copay becomes a full pay – and then some,” Hoey added. The survey also reveals the following:

  • 83% of pharmacists have witnessed copay claw backs at least 10 times during the past month.
  • 67% say the practice is limited to certain PBMs.
  • 59% say the practice occurs in Medicare Part D plans and commercial plans.

PBM corporations sometimes impose gag clauses that prohibit community pharmacists from volunteering that a medication may be less expensive if purchased at the cash price rather than through the insurance plan. In other words, the patient has to ask about pricing. Fifty-nine percent of pharmacists say they encountered these restrictions at least 10 times during the past month. Pharmacists sat that United Healthcare/Optum Rx and Aetna appear to employ copay claw backs most often.

Expensive Drugs Are Becoming More Accessible Under Exchange Plans

ACA exchange plans are making some drugs more accessible to patients in 2016. Plans are less likely to place all drugs for conditions, such as HIV, cancer, and multiple sclerosis (MS) in a class on the highest cost-sharing tier, according to a report by Avalere. The study looked at Silver plans across 20 classes of medications. In five medication classes, some plans all drugs on the highest tier including drugs to treat HIV, cancer, and MS. However, fewer exchange plans are doing so in 2016 than in the prior two years.

As in prior years, the anti-angiogenics class, used to treat cancer, was most often subject to universal placement on the specialty tier. Half of all Silver plans placed all covered drugs in this class on the specialty tier in 2016. Nearly one-third of Silver plans place all covered MS drugs on the specialty tier as well, though this rate is down 14% from 2015. The sharpest decline is for molecular target inhibitors at 18%. For these three classes, 2016 reversed the sharp increase in this tiering structure.

Since the launch of exchanges in 2014, patient groups and policymakers have considered how formulary designs could affect patients’ ability to access medications. At the same time, plans strive to offer innovative benefit designs with low premiums. CMS has issued guidance discouraging plans from placing all drugs for a condition on the highest tier without regarding the cost of the medication. The federal government has not yet created a tool for regulators to evaluate benefit designs in this regard. California passed legislation preventing plans from placing all drugs for a condition on the highest formulary tier beginning in 2017

Medicare Advantage 2016 Spotlight

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The number of Medicare beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare Advantage has climbed steadily over the past decade; this trend in enrollment growth continues in 2016. The enrollment growth has occurred despite provisions under the ACA that reduce payments to plans. As of 2016, the payment reductions have been phased in fully in 78% of counties, accounting for 70% of beneficiaries and 68% of Medicare Advantage enrollees, according to a study by the Kaiser Family Foundation. The following are study highlights:

  • Medicare Advantage enrollment has increased in virtually all states over the past year. Almost one in three people on Medicare (31% or 17.6 million beneficiaries) is enrolled in a Medicare Advantage plan in 2016. The penetration rate exceeds 40% in five states.
  • 18% of enrollees are in a group plan. Employers and their retirees still favor local PPOs over HMOs.
  • Enrollment is still highly concentrated. If Aetna acquired Humana with no divestitures in 2016, the combined firm would account for 25% of Medicare Advantage enrollees nationwide. UnitedHealthcare and Humana account for 39% of enrollment in 2016.
  • Premiums were relatively constant from 2015 to 2016 ($37 a month in 2016 versus $38 a month in 2015), although premiums vary widely across states, counties, and plan types.
  • In 2016, the average enrollee had an out-of-pocket limit of $5,223, which is nearly $1,000 higher than in 2011.
  • 31% of the Medicare population is enrolled in a Medicare Advantage plan. Total Medicare Advantage enrollment grew 5%, from 2015 to 2016. This reflects the influence of seniors aging on to Medicare and beneficiaries shifting from traditional Medicare to Medicare Advantage.
  • 64% of Medicare Advantage enrollees are in HMOs; 23% are in local PPOs; 7% are in regional PPOs; 1% are in private fee-for-service plans; and 4% are in other types of plans including cost plans and Medicare medical savings accounts.
  • Enrollment in private fee-for-service plans has declined slowly since the Medicare Improvements for Patients & Providers Act (MIPPA) of 2008. Under the law, in most parts of the country, private fee-for-service plans must have a provider network. About 1% of Medicare Advantage enrollees are in these plans. 26% of enrollees in private fee-for-service plans are in counties in which private fee-for-service plans are exempt from network requirements.
  • Medicare Advantage enrollment in California grew 6% from 2015 to 2016.
  • 44% of beneficiaries in Los Angeles County, California are enrolled in Medicare Advantage plans compared to only 11% of beneficiaries in Santa Cruz County, California.
  • The average MA prescription drug enrollee pays a monthly premium of about $37, which is 1% less than in 2015. Actual premiums are $28 a month for HMOs, $63 a month for local PPOs, and $76 a month for private fee-for-service plans. Average Medicare Advantage premiums for HMOs and local PPOs have decreased since the ACA was enacted while average premiums have increased for regional PPOs and private fee-for-service plans.
  • In 2016, 81% of Medicare beneficiaries had a choice of at least one zero premium MA prescription drug plan. From 2015 to 2016, the share of enrollees in zero premium MA prescription drug benefits remained relatively unchanged (48% in 2015 versus 49% in 2016). Fifty-nine percent of HMO enrollees are in zero premium plans; 38% are in regional PPOs; and 22% are in local PPOs. No zero premium private fee-for-service plans plans were offered in 2015 or 2016.
  • The average out-of-pocket limit for a MA prescription drug enrollee is $5,223, up from $5,041 in 2015 and $4,313 in 2011. The share of enrollees in plans with limits above $5,000 has greatly increased across all plan types. Fifty-two percent of enrollees are in plans with limits above $5,000 in 2016 compared to 46% in 2015. Thirty-seven percent of enrollees in 2016 are in plans with limits at the $6,700 maximum, compared to 32% in 2015 and 17% in 2011. Ninety-nine percent of regional PPO enrollees and 62% of local PPO enrollees are in plans with limits above $5,000 in 2016. In comparison, 45% of HMO enrollees are in plans with limits above $5,000 in 2016.
  • The standard Medicare Part D plan has a $360 drug deductible and 25% coinsurance up to an initial coverage limit of $3,310. That is followed by a coverage gap (the doughnut hole) in which beneficiaries pay a larger share until their total out-of-pocket Part D spending reaches $4,850. After exceeding this catastrophic threshold, beneficiaries pay 5% of the cost of drugs.
  • 95% of Kaiser Permanente’s enrollees are in HMOs. In contrast, enrollment in UnitedHealthcare and Humana plans is mostly in HMOs, but includes significant shares in local and regional PPOs. Humana’s distribution continues the shift from earlier years when a much larger share of Humana’s enrollees was in private fee-for-service plans plans. Enrollment in BCBS plans is split between HMOs (46%) and local PPOs (41%), with the remainder in regional PPOs and other plan types including private fee-for-service plans plans.
  • Kaiser Permanente’s presence is more geographically focused than other major national employers, with a heavy concentration in California, Colorado, the District of Columbia and Maryland.
  • Medicare Advantage enrollment could become more concentrated if Aetna’s acquisition of Humana and Anthem’s acquisition of Cigna are approved, particularly if few divestitures are required. If no divestitures are required in Aetna’s acquisition of Humana, the combined company would account for 25% of Medicare Advantage enrollment nationwide. UnitedHealthcare accounts for 21% of enrollment this year.
  • The Anthem’s acquisition of Cigna would have a less visible affect on the national Medicare Advantage market. Nationwide, Anthem accounts for 3% of Medicare Advantage enrollment and Cigna accounts for another 3%.
  • For many years, CMS has posted quality ratings for Medicare Advantage plans. In 2016, 68% of plans had four or more stars. In focus groups, seniors have said that they don’t use the star ratings to select a plan. Nonetheless, the star ratings may be correlated with factors that seniors do use to select their plan, including provider networks, and plan benefits and costs, and thus may be correlated with enrollment.
  • The Congressional Budget Office projects that about 41% of Medicare beneficiaries will be enrolled in Medicare Advantage in 2026. This growth may prompt some to question what it will mean if the preponderance of beneficiaries are in Medicare Advantage plans.

PBMs Say They Increase Competition and Reduce Rx Costs

Testifying before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, Pharmaceutical Care Management Association (PCMA) president and CEO Mark Merritt outlined ways to increase competition and lower prescription drug costs. The Committee is examining methods and reasoning behind recent drug price increases at a hearing titled, Developments in the Prescription Drug Market.

PBMs administer prescription drug plans for more than 266 million Americans who have health insurance from a variety of sponsors including: commercial health plans, self-insured employer plans, union plans, Medicare Part D plans, the Federal Employees Health Benefits Program, state government employee plans, managed Medicaid plans, and others.

PBMs are projected to save employers, unions, government programs, and consumers $654 billion—up to 30%—on drug benefit costs over the next decade according to new research. PBMs reduce drug costs by doing the following:

  • Negotiating rebates from drug manufacturers.
  • Negotiating discounts from drugstores.
  • Offering more affordable pharmacy channels.
  • Encouraging use of generics and more affordable brand medications.
  • Managing high-cost specialty medications.
  • Reducing waste and improving adherence.

Merritt said, “There is a growing use of bait-and-switch copay assistance marketing programs that encourage patients to ignore generics and start on more expensive brand drugs.” Unlike programs for the poor and uninsured, copay offset programs are designed to encourage insured patients to bypass less expensive drugs for higher cost branded drugs. Such practices are considered illegal kickbacks in federal programs and have long been under scrutiny by the Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General (OIG).

PCMA outlined several potential solutions for high drug prices that policymakers could consider, including:

  • Accelerating FDA approvals of “me-too” brands against drugs that face no competition.
  • Accelerating FDA approvals of generics to compete with off-patent brands that face no competition.
  • Creating a government watch list of all the off-patent brands so potential acquirers are aware that policymakers can monitor these situations.
  • Making copay coupons an illegal kickback for all insurance that gets any federal subsidy.

Top Challenges for People with Medicare

The Medicare Rights Center released its annual report based on thousands of calls to its national helpline. Two trends stood out among the questions from helpline callers:

  1. Navigating Medicare Part B Enrollment: Many people are confused by Medicare enrollment rules, and specifically whether to take or decline Part B, which covers doctors’ and other services. Some have other coverage through an employer or the new state or federal Marketplace and want to know how insurance may change because they are eligible for Medicare. While callers may be aware of the risk of late enrollment penalties, they may not realize that their former insurance may refuse to pay for care once they are Medicare-eligible.
  2. Navigating Part D Prescription Drug Appeals: In addition to not knowing why their prescription drug was denied, callers are confused by the Part D appeals process. They are often unsure about whether their appeal has been filed, what level of appeal they are in, and what their doctors have done on their behalf.

Drawing from Medicare Rights’ 25 years of experience serving people with Medicare and their families, the report includes a comprehensive set of policy recommendations on how to improve access to affordable health coverage. Among the recommendations are to provide better education to newly eligible beneficiaries about Part B enrollment and prescription-drug appeals and streamline enrollment periods for employers.

AMA Calls for Ban on Direct to Consumer Prescription Drugs Ads

The AMA is supporting a prescription-drug advertising ban. AMA board chair-elect Patrice Harris, M.D., M.A. said that direct-to-consumer advertising inflates demand for new and more expensive drugs even when these drugs are not appropriate. The AMA is also calling choice and competition in the pharmaceutical industry as well as greater transparency in prescription drug prices and costs.

The United States and New Zealand are the only countries that allow direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs. In the past two years, advertisers have increased spending on prescription drug ads by 30% to $4.5 billion, according to Kantar Media.

The AMA wants federal regulators to limit pharmaceutical companies from manipulating patent protections and abusing regulatory exclusivity incentives in their efforts to reduce competition from generic manufacturers. Patent reform is a key area for encouraging greater market-based competition. Prices on generic and brand name prescription drugs experienced a 4.7% spike in 2015, according to the Altarum Institute Center for Sustainable Health Spending. The AMA will also monitor how pharmaceutical company mergers and acquisitions affect drug prices.

Online Refills Help Patients Adhere to Meds

Patients from all racial and ethnic minority groups who got prescription refills through an online patient portal had better medication adherences, according to a study in the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. “Our findings are consistent with other studies that suggest providing tools for health care management, such as online refills, can help improve health behavior such as medication adherence,” said lead author Courtney Lyles, PhD, affiliate investigator at the Kaiser Permanente Division of Research and assistant professor at the University of California, San Francisco.

According to a recent report by the National Institutes of Health, Americans with chronic conditions only take their medications as prescribed about 50% to 60% of the time. Poor adherence costs the health care system $100 billion to $300 billion each year, and results in about 125,000 deaths.

This study examined patients with diabetes from Kaiser Permanente Northern California who had been using My Health Manager. Patients who began consistently refilling their statin prescriptions online showed a 4% improvement in adherence. Those who used online refilling tended to be younger and were taking more recurring medications than those not refilling online. Also, they used the patient portal more frequently at the onset of the study. African-American portal users were less likely to use the online tool to refill their prescriptions, and all racial and ethnic minority groups had lower statin adherence compared to white patients at baseline. For more information,

ACA Has Helped Seniors Save $8.9 Billion On Prescription Drugs

Seniors and people with disabilities with Medicare prescription drug plan coverage have saved $8.9 billion on their prescription drugs thanks to the Affordable Care Act, according to new data by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). At the same time, these seniors will be free to use more of their Social Security benefit cost of living adjustment on what they choose because the Medicare Part B premium will not increase in 2014, thanks to the health care law’s successful efforts to keep cost growth low.

Since the Affordable Care Act was enacted, more than 7.3 million seniors and people with disabilities who reached the “donut hole” in their Medicare Part D (Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage) plans have saved $8.9 billion on their prescription drugs, an average of $1,209 per person since the program began. During the first 10 months of 2013, nearly 3.4 million people nationwide who reached the coverage gap — known as the donut hole. This year they have saved $2.9 billion, an average of $866 per beneficiary. These figures are higher than at this same point last year, when 2.8 million beneficiaries had saved $1.8 billion for an average of $677 per beneficiary. CMS recently announced that the Medicare’s Part B premium will not increase in 2014, and that the last five years have been among the slowest periods of average Part B premium growth in the program’s history. The Part B deductible will also not increase, having decreased in 2014. The Part B premium and deductible for 2014 are 15% below what was projected in 2010, the year the Affordable Care Act was enacted.

Also as a result of the Affordable Care Act, Medicare Advantage and Prescription Drug Plans remain stable and strong. Earlier this year, CMS announced that the average Medicare Advantage (MA) premium in 2014 is projected to be $32.60. CMS also estimated that the average basic Medicare prescription drug plan premium in 2014 is projected to be $31 per month, holding steady for 4 years in a row. The deductible for standard Part D plans will decline by $15 in 2014, to $310. Since the passage of the Affordable Care Act, average MA premiums are down by 9.8%.

Since enactment of the Affordable Care Act, the life of the Medicare trust fund has been extended by nearly ten years, till 2026.
For state-by-state information on savings in the donut hole, please visit:http://downloads.cms.gov/files/SummaryChart2010_October_2013.pdf

More People Will Get Drug Coverage, But at Higher Costs

Based on early health insurance rate filings, consumers who choose the lower cost Bronze and Silver plans are likely to pay more for prescription drugs. If trends continue, consumers with prescription drug coverage can expect to pay an average of 34% more out-of-pocket for their prescriptions, according to a report by HealthPocket.

The good news is that drug coverage will be considered an essential health benefit in all health plans. The bad news is that out-of-pocket prescription costs are likely to rise substantially from the average annual per capita expenditure of $758.

“Americans are going to need to pay very, very close attention to what plans offer to minimize out-of-pocket increases for medications. When it comes to drug costs and changes in our newly reformed health care system, the fine print really matters,” said Kev Coleman, head of Research & Data at HealthPocket.

The analysis also finds that, in most cases, the higher-end Gold and Platinum plans have lower drug cost sharing. However, experts expect the less expensive Bronze and Silver plans with higher out-of- pocket drug costs to be the most popular for cost-conscious consumers. Coinsurance rates for higher cost medications, which are typically injected, will vary widely under each metal plan. For more information, visit www.HealthPocket.com.

Last Updated 06/29/2022

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